Surgical removal of or infarcts to the anterior cingu-late cortex provide further evidence for its role in responsiveness to pain, movement (e.g., akinetic mutism), regulation of autonomic activity, and internal emotional responses, consistent with evidence from animal and imaging studies. Clearly, whether the lesion is more caudal or rostral affects the behaviors observed. Surgical removal of this region has been shown to diminish symptoms associated with severe cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder as described earlier and in cases of chronic and severe pain. One hypothesis for the involvement of anterior cingulate cortex in pain or obsessions is associated with attention to the pain or obsession; however, this interpretation has been called into question specifically with regard to pain.

Anxiety and Panic Attacks

Anxiety and Panic Attacks

Suffering from Anxiety or Panic Attacks? Discover The Secrets to Stop Attacks in Their Tracks! Your heart is racing so fast and you don’t know why, at least not at first. Then your chest tightens and you feel like you are having a heart attack. All of a sudden, you start sweating and getting jittery.

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