Loudness and Pitch

The physical properties of sound include intensity and frequency. Subjective attributes of sound include loudness and pitch. Although loudness is highly correlated with intensity and pitch is highly correlated with frequency, changes in frequency can cause perceived loudness changes; similarly, changes in intensity can lead to perceptual differences in pitch.

Figure 13 displays equal loudness contours, where each contour represents the level and frequency of tones that are judged equally loud. For instance, the curve labeled 40 phons represents the levels and frequencies of tones that are all equal in loudness to a 40-dB SPL, 1000-Hz tone; the 80-phon curve represents the frequencies and levels required for equal loudness judgments to a 80-dB SPL, 1000-Hz tone. Equal loudness contours are used to define the phon as a decibel measure of loudness level. A tone that is x

CO 100 m

S 80

I 40

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