Summary of Outcomes of Imaging Studies

The predominant outcome from these studies is that of a robust pattern of overlapping activation in users of even highly diverse languages such as Chinese and English, particularly among late bilinguals. However, although most studies stress a strong overlap in patterns of neural activation for L1 and L2, slightly more than half document some variability in activation patterns across the two languages. For example, users of sign languages vs spoken languages appear to show differences in interhemispheric activation. Moreover, studies of Catalan vs Spanish, despite being highly similar languages, have nevertheless shown differences (in the RH) even among early bilinguals. Studies of Chinese-English speakers have tended not to show differential activation. In some cases, the overlap in activation has been attributed to carry-over effects from L1 to L2 processing.

Breaking Bulimia

Breaking Bulimia

We have all been there: turning to the refrigerator if feeling lonely or bored or indulging in seconds or thirds if strained. But if you suffer from bulimia, the from time to time urge to overeat is more like an obsession.

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