Anterior Posterior Dichotomy

That the functions of the cerebrum could be divided into motoric and sensory, with motor functions located in the anterior portion of the brain and sensory functions in the posterior, was a prevailing idea in the 19th century. Broca's postulate concerning the function of the inferior frontal convolution followed this broad division of function in that the portion of language that he had placed in the frontal lobe controlled the output of language. However, Broca considered articulate speech to be an intellectual function and not merely motoric. In this, Broca agreed with the school of thought that placed intellectual functions in the frontal lobes, relegating processes influenced by emotion and passion in the posterior lobes.

In 1874, Karl Wernicke described an area of the posterior, superior temporal lobe as being responsible for speech comprehension, including the understanding of word meaning (i.e., semantics). In doing so, Wernicke undermined Broca's speculations that Bro-ca's areas supported cognitive aspects of language. This set a trend of localization of linguistic semantics to the posterior, superior temporal lobe (Wernicke's area) that has persisted in the clinical literature through the 20th century. Recently, through the use of functional imaging technology, higher order functions related to language have been returned to the frontal lobe. This shift has occurred with the subdivision of the frontal language area into more specialized semantic and articulatory areas. Those that involve semantics activate a distinct area anterior to Broca's classically defined seat of articulate language.

Breaking Bulimia

Breaking Bulimia

We have all been there: turning to the refrigerator if feeling lonely or bored or indulging in seconds or thirds if strained. But if you suffer from bulimia, the from time to time urge to overeat is more like an obsession.

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