Efferent Components

Some of the motor components of four cranial nerves have traditionally been assigned to the category of SVE—the trigeminal (V), facial (VII), glossopharyn-geal (IX), vagus (X), and spinal accessory (XI) nerve components that innervate muscles derived from the branchial arches. Four purely motor cranial nerves classified as GSE—III, IV, VI, and XII—innervate eye and tongue muscles. Recent embryological findings, particularly from the work of Noden and collaborators, have shown that the nerve components of the SVE and GSE categories both innervate striated skeletal muscles that are all derived from the same embryonic muscle masses in the developing head and neck regions. Components of the third efferent category, GVE, are present in cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X and give rise to preganglionic parasympa-thetic fibers for innervation of the ganglia that supply glands in the head and the viscera of the thorax and abdomen.

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