Nonneuronal Primary Human Cells

On the basis of the observations discussed previously regarding the importance of the trophic host response in promoting regeneration posttransplantation, often independent of graft survival or function, some investigators have proposed alternate sources ofdonor cells that will primarily serve as promoters of host regeneration. Among the nonneuronal brain cells, astrocytes are prime candidates. A study of neuroglial cell grafting in a murine model of lesion-induced memory deficits showed that astrocytic grafts induced significantly more improvement compared to the cholinergic neuronal grafts. Another interesting method is based on transplanting activated macrophages to promote CNS regeneration. One of the rationales is that grafted macrophages may compensate for the failure of host macrophages to provide trophic support or potentially overcome their inhibitory activity. Finally, one of the most intriguing sources of donor cells is the bone marrow stroma. Azizi and colleagues have shown that human marrow stromal cells grafted in the rat brain can survive, spread, and differentiate into a neuroglial phenotype in the absence of a host immune response or any signs of rejection. An important comment is that the donor cell mixture may include a significant population of nonhemato-poietic tissue precursors. If any of these methods proves to be consistent among various laboratories and disease models, they could become a powerful strategy for promoting "natural" regeneration or an important platform for delivering gene therapy.

Breaking Bulimia

Breaking Bulimia

We have all been there: turning to the refrigerator if feeling lonely or bored or indulging in seconds or thirds if strained. But if you suffer from bulimia, the from time to time urge to overeat is more like an obsession.

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