Venous Malformations

Venous malformations are composed of histologically normal veins that radially converge on a single draining vein with interposed normal brain (as opposed to cavernous malformations with no interposed normal brain). This pattern has been described as a "spoke wheel'' or "caput medusae'' and is best seen in the venous phase of angiographic studies (Fig. 15). There is no arterial inflow. Venous malformations are located within the white matter commonly adjacent to an ependymal surface. Venous malformations are clinically silent and are considered benign. If a hemorrhage or seizure occurs, an associated AVM or cavernous malformation should be suspected.

Autism

Autism

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