Dopaminergic Receptors

Five types of dopamine receptors have been identified. They are all called dopamine receptors because they all respond to dopamine and are relatively homologous in structure; however, two types, D1 and D2, can be discriminated pharmacologically by both agonists and antagonists. It is very likely that drugs selective for the other three types will also be found. The ability to selectively activate or inactivate different aspects ofthe dopaminergic system with drugs that act on one receptor type has made it possible to explore the role that the D1 and D2 dopaminergic system plays in behavior. The role of the other three types (D3-D5) is not clear.

1. Di receptors are found in the caudate nucleus and cortex. There are a variety of extraneural sites where these receptors are located, including the vascular structures of the brain, heart, and renal and mesenteric systems.

2. D2 receptors have been identified in the putamen, caudate nucleus, and striatum as well as in limbic structures and in low density in the cortex. Two subtypes of D2 receptors have been identified (D2a and D2b), but differences in anatomical location and physiological properties have not been worked out.

3. D3 receptors have been identified in the limbic system.

4. D4 receptors have recently been identified in the frontal cortex, basal ganglia, medulla, midbrain, and amygdala. The D4 receptor demonstrates the greatest similarity to the D2 family of receptors.

5. D5 receptors have been identified in the caudate, putamen, olfactory bulb, and tubercle as well as in the nucleus.

Understanding And Treating Autism

Understanding And Treating Autism

Whenever a doctor informs the parents that their child is suffering with Autism, the first & foremost question that is thrown over him is - How did it happen? How did my child get this disease? Well, there is no definite answer to what are the exact causes of Autism.

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