Many of the neuroendocrine and autonomic changes resulting from stress, fear, and anxiety can be understood from the projections that the hypothalamic nuclei receive from many limbic and brain stem structures. Their projection is to sympathetic regions in the spinal cord and medulla. The hypothalamus is important in the regulation of neuropeptide release and sympathoadrenal outflow associated with fear and anxiety. Stress results in increased production and turnover of NE in the hypothalamic nuclei. Stimulation of LC results in increased NE turnover in the PVN and supraoptic nucleus (SON), and helps PVN and SON synthesize enkephalin, vasopressin, and oxytocin—hormones whose levels are increased by stress. There is evidence that stress induces changes in cholecystokinin (CCK) and substance P, concentrated in the hypothalamus.

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

The Ultimate Guide To Overcoming Fear And Getting Breakthroughs. Fear is without doubt among the strongest and most influential emotional responses we have, and it may act as both a protective and destructive force depending upon the situation.

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