Efferent Neurons

These include (i) motoneurons of cranial nerves V-VII and IX-XII that innervate striated muscle in the head and neck region (trigeminal motor, abducens, facial, ambiguus, and accessory nuclei), (ii) preganglionic neurons that innervate cranial parasympathetic ganglia (superior salivatory nucleus of cranial nerve VII and inferior salivatory nucleus of cranial nerve IX) and autonomic ganglia in the trunk (dorsal motor nucleus of nerve X), and (iii) cochlear and vestibular efferents from respectively the superior olive and reticular formation that innervate hair cells in the inner ear. All of these efferent populations are cholinergic.

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