Several neuropeptides also mediate the response to stress. CCK is an anxiogenic neuropeptide present in the gastrointestinal tract and the brain that has recently been suggested to be a neural substrate for human anxiety.

Stress is associated with an increase in endogenous opiate release with decreased density of mu opiate receptors, which may mediate the analgesia associated with stress. Other neuropeptides under investigation that appear to play a role in the stress response are neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, and thyrotropin. Stress also has important effects on the immune system.

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