Vascular malformations represent an important disorder of the intracranial vasculature. Vascular malformations may be categorized as arteriovenous malformations, cavernous malformations, venous malformations, and capillary telangiectasias. Each subtype possesses its own unique natural history, clinical manifestations, and imaging characteristics. Different treatment paradigms have been established for each malformation. A multimodal approach to

Figure 14 Cavernous malformation: T1-weighted axial MRI, with arrows marking typical brain stem cavernoma with "popcorn" appearance.

treatment encompasses the disciplines of microsurgery, endovascular therapy, and stereotactic radio-surgery. Effective treatment of the most complex vascular malformations is being increasingly realized.

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