astrocyte Control function of the neuronal environment influencing local electrolyte and neurotransmitter concentrations.

contusion Necrotic cortex and white matter with variable quantities of petechial hemorrhages and edema due to head trauma.

Creutzfeld-Jacob disease Transmissible spongiform encephalo-pathy leading to a widespread cortical atrophy with the prion (proteinaceous infectious particle) as the responsible agent.

cytotoxic edema Accumulation of excess intracellular water.

encephalitis Brain infection commonly due to bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa.

epidural hematoma Collection of blood between the skull and the dura.

focal ischemia Pattern of damage caused by a stroke resulting from a brain infarct.

head trauma Damage of the brain and/or skull due to a trauma.

morbus Alzheimer Most common degenerative brain disease causing a presenile or senile dementia.

multiple sclerosis Demyelinating disorder affecting the central nervous system with predominant white matter lesions.

oligodendrocyte Myelin-forming cell of the central nervous system.

subdural hematoma Collection of blood between the dura and the underlying brain frequently a result of torn veins draining into the dura or dural sinuses.

A lesion is the structural or functional correlate of a disease or illness to which clinical signs and symptoms can be attributed. Specific lesions are related to distinct groups of diseases or types of injuries. In general, a brain lesion is understood as a structural one. However, a lesion may be purely biochemical or systemic; thus, not all diseases have overtly visible lesions associated with them, despite profound consequences for the patient.

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