Glossary

dysarthria Disturbance of speech articulation or impairment of the speech mechanism, including muscle weakness. It is manifested by slurred pronunciation.

dysprosody Loss of the normal rhythm, melody, and articulation of speech.

gliosis Glial cells migrate to and proliferate in areas of neural tissue where damage has occurred.

hemiplegia Paralysis of one side of the body.

hypophonia An abnormally weak voice resulting from uncoordi-nation of speech muscles, including weakness of muscles of respiration.

paraphasia The production of unintended syllables, words, or phrases during speech.

regional cereberal blood flow (rCBF) Amount of blood flow in a region of the cortex is positively correlated to the metabolic activity of that region. Imaging of the rCBF by scintigraphy with inhaled xenon-133 can be combined with psychological testing during the measurement of blood flow, allowing assessment of the effects of cognitive activation procedures on blood flow in specific regions of the cortex.

Commonly described as the anatomic seat of human self-awareness, the frontal lobes are the most evolu-tionarily advanced components of the human brain. Scientific advancements during the past decade have considerably improved our understanding of the frontal lobes and their complex role in cognition, personality, and neurological disease. This article presents a contemporary perspective on frontal lobe neuroanatomy; neuropsychological functions; and frontal lobe disorders.

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