feedback A signal derived from afferents used to control the movement and correct for errors in an ongoing movement.

feedforward A signal derived from efferent commands used to predict the movement that will ensue.

kinematics Dealing with movement; includes parameters such as position, velocity, and acceleration.

kinetics Dealing with the forces that generate a movement.

physical plant The mechanical properties of muscles and of the skeletal system.

Movement regulation is thought to involve a combination of feedback and feedforward mechanisms. The nature of the feedforward and the feedback control depends crucially on the characteristics of the motor plan and the properties of the physical plant that is being regulated. This article reviews current concepts of motor planning, the properties of the musculoskeletal system, and control systems models for movement regulation. The focus is on the regulation of limb movements, although many of the concepts apply equally to the control of eye movements.



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