achromatic contrast Gradients of energy in an image resulting in black-white vision.

achromats Subjects who have either only short-wave-sensitive or no cones; they have no color vision.

chromatic contrast Gradients of wavelength in an image responsible for color vision.

color opponency Colors that cancel each other when mixed, such as red and green or blue and yellow.

cone opponency Signals from two spectrally different cones that have opposite effects on the same neuron (i.e., one cone signal excites and the other inhibits the neuron).

deuteranopes Subjects who lack middle-wave-sensitive cones; their color vision is also divariant (about 1% of males).

opsins Proteins in photoreceptors that absorb light and trigger a neural response.

protanopes Subjects who lack longwave sensitive cones; their color vision depends on two variables and is divariant (about 1% of males).

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