associative attention Attention focused on stimuli that predict the occurrence of reinforcement (reward or pain) and call for action.

brain electrical source analysis A dipole localization algorithm used to model the intracranial sources of electrical fields that generate scalp event-related potentials.

discriminativetraining-induced neuronal activity Significantly greater neuronal firing frequencies in response to a positive conditional stimulus than to a negative conditional stimulus. Discriminative training-induced neuronal activity occurs in many brain areas as early as 15 msec after conditioned stimulus onset.

duration coding Greater neuronal firing in response to a brief than to a more enduring positive conditional stimulus.

error-related negativity Electrical negativity found in event-related potential recordings from mid-frontal regions of the scalp. The peak of the error-related negativity occurs approximately 100 msec after the onset of an erroneous response.

executive attention A process guided by an individual's plans and goals, which comes into play when routine or automatic processes are insufficient for the task at hand, such as when novel or conflict-laden situations are encountered.

positive conditional stimulus A stimulus employed in studies of classical and instrumental conditioning. The occurrence of a positive conditional stimulus predicts reinforcement (reward or pain). A negative conditional stimulus predicts that no reinforcement will occur.

salience compensation An attentional process of cingulate cortex that amplifies the neural representation of nonsalient but associatively significant stimuli in order to ensure that such stimuli receive processing that is commensurate with their associative significance. Duration coding is an example of salience compensation.

Early and highly influential accounts of cingulate cortical function were presented by J. W. Papez and Paul MacLean, who argued, in essence, that activity in neural circuitry involving cingulate cortex and related structures of the brain's limbic system is the neural substrate of emotional experience. Recent studies have implicated cingulate cortex in pain perception and in the cognitive processes of attention, response selection, learning, and memory. Morever, changes in the cingulate cortex have been found relevant to the etiology of schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. This article emphasizes developments concerning the behavioral and cognitive functions of cingulate cortex. A particular emphasis of this article is the integration of many recent findings from laboratories of behavioral neuroscientists concerning neuronal firing patterns and effects of experimental brain lesions on behavior in animals with a large body of recent data from laboratories of cognitive neuroscientists concerning experimental analyses of human cognition using neuroimaging methods such as positron emission tomograpy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and high-density electroencehpalographic recording. Before addressing these issues, however, some basic facts and definitions are reviewed.

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