Glossary

amplitude Height of an EEG wave from baseline, reflecting the magnitude of voltage in the EEG.

artifact Contamination of an EEG wave by factors other than brain electrical activity, e.g., eye or other body movements, muscle electrical activity.

canned protocol A very specific neurofeedback treatment plan often applied in a rigid manner with clients.

electrode A small metallic conductor. These are placed on the scalp at points where EEG activity is to be detected and conducted to other processing equipment.

empirical Derived from experience and/or scientific experiment.

entrain To cause the interaction of one organismic rhythm with another, resulting in identical or related rhythms (frequencies) between the interactants.

filtered Having certain frequencies removed from the full EEG frequency spectrum. For example, frequencies above 32 Hz often are removed prior to further EEG analysis.

Fourier analysis A mathematical process, named after the nineteenth century French physicist, J. B. J. Fourier, enabling analysis of a complex waveform into simple sine waves. This permits the calculation of power (voltage) in a specific EEG frequency band(s) of interest.

frequency band A specified portion of a total frequency range, e.g., the 8.0-12.0 Hz portion of an entire 1.0 to 32.0 Hz EEG record.

Hz Abbreviation for hertz. A frequency unit of 1 cycle per second, named after the nineteenth century physicist, Heinrich Hertz.

international 10-20 electrode system A standardized system for locating EEG electrodes on the scalp, which corrects for individual differences in skull size.

phase A stage in anything that is cyclic in nature, e.g., an EEG wave. Two waves are synchronized if a given stage occurs simultaneously in each.

placebo effect Changes following a treatment that are due to the suggestion or expectancy of change.

Neurofeedback is a specific case of biofeedback in which the physiological process involved is the electrical activity of the brain. This article presents an overview of the field of neurofeedback.

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