exocytosis Extrusion of secretory vesicle from cell to extracellular space.

islet The endocrine pancreas, consisting of cell islets scattered throughout the pancreas and comprising several different types of endocrine cells.

neuropeptides Peptides localized to nerve terminals, released when the nerves are activated and functioning as neurotransmitters.

secretory granules Cellular vesicles storing the secretory product of the cell.

This article summarizes the present day knowledge of the islet neuropeptides, which are of relevance for the regulation of islet function. Normal islet function is of vital importance for glucose and lipid homeostasis, because a main function of the islets is to secrete an optimal amount of insulin and glucagon to regulate metabolism. Important factors for the regulation of islet function therefore are glucose and free fatty acids. Circulating hormones, mainly gut hormones, also are of importance for normal islet function, notably after food intake, as are the various peptide hormones produced within the pancreatic islets, which affect the secretory rate of the other islet hormones. In addition, the autonomic islet nerves are involved in the regulation of islet function, and the central nervous system therefore is able to adjust the secretory rates of the islet hormones for the optimization of metabolism under various conditions. Effectors for this action are the neurotransmitters in the islet nerves, which besides acetylcholine and norepinephrine also include several different neuropeptides.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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