aneurysm Focal arterial dilation.

anterior circulation Vessels supplied by the paired internal carotid arteries.

diencephalon Develops from the embryologie prosencephalon and includes the thalamus and hypothalamus.

dural venous sinus Valveless venous structures whose walls are formed by the two dural leaves; it provides the major venous drainage of the cranium.

endovascular therapy Therapy provided from within the vessel lumen utilizing catheter-based technology to treat a variety of vascular disease processes.

intracerebral hemorrhage Denotes the presence of blood within the brain parenchyma; may be spontaneous or secondary to trauma.

posterior circulation Vessels supplied by vertebrobasilar system.

radiosurgery Radiation therapy using stereotactic-guided focused external beam.

telencephalon Develops from the embryologic prosencephalon and denotes the cerebral hemispheres and basal ganglia.

vascular malformations A category of vascular disorders that includes arteriovenous malformations, cavernous malformations, venous malformations, and capillary telangiectasias.

vasculopathy All-encompassing term used to denote any disease of the blood vessels.

The cerebral circulation is formed by a complex vascular network. The cerebral vasculature is subject to a wide range of disorders, including ischemic and hemorrha-gic stroke, vascular anomalies, and vasculopathy. Cerebrovascular diseases have the potential to compromise vital cerebral functions, leaving many neuro-logically devastated. Collectively, cerebrovascular disease poses an enormous societal burden. This article focuses on the specific pathophysiology, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment guidelines for each of these disorders.

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