acquired immune deficiency syndrome A disease resulting from collapse of cell-mediated immunity, resulting in infections, cancers, and other complications that lead to death. Human immunodeficiency virus is the causal agent.

antiretroviral drugs Drugs that interfere with various stages of the reproduction of human immunodeficiency virus.

CCR5 A type of chemokine receptor found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and certain other cells.

CD4 cells A type of lymphocyte that is important in coordinating numerous immune events. Infection and depletion of CD4 lymphocytes by HIV results in the evolution of acquired immunodeficiency.

cerebrospinal fluid Fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord and also contained within the cavities of the brain. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid may provide clues about pathological processes in the brain.

chemokines, chemokine receptors Chemokines are a family of molecules that are produced in the course of inflammation. Docking sites for such molecules (receptor sites) may be important for HIV entry into a host cell and also in HIV-mediated neural injury.

CXCR4 A type of chemokine receptor found predominantly on CD4 lymphocytes.

dementia, cortical A pattern of neurocognitive change similar to that seen in Alzheimer's disease.

dementia, subcortical Pattern of neurocognitive changes resembling those seen in Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, and certain "white matter'' diseases of the brain.

gp120 A molecule in the envelope coating of HIV that may be neurotoxic.

human immunodeficiency virus The virus that causes HIV disease and AIDS.

integrase An enzyme of HIV necessary for the process whereby proviral DNA is integrated into the genome of the host cell.

neurocognitive Mental processes whose disruption strongly suggests reversible or irreversible brain injury. The neurocognitive functions (abilities) include attention, perceptual motor abilities, abstracting (including problem solving, planning, and executive functions), learning, remembering, and speeded information processing.

neurocognitive complications A spectrum of disturbances of neurocognitive functions ranging from asymptomatic impairment to frank dementia.

protease An enzyme contained in HIV that is involved in the late stages of HIV maturation.

protease inhibitors Drugs whose antiviral activity derives from their ability to interfere with the HIV enzyme protease.

Encyclopedia of the Human Brain Volume 2

Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA).

All rights reserved.

reverse transcriptase An enzyme carried by HIV that allows it to form viral DNA from its RNA template.

reverse transcriptase inhibitors Drugs whose antiviral properties derive from their ability to interfere with the HIV enzyme reverse transcriptase.

virion A particle of HIV.

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