acalculia Severe deficit in arithmetical calculation abilities, often resulting from a brain lesion or degenerative neurological disorder.

cardinality The total number of items in a set.

counting Determining the number of items in a set by engaging in a serial process that satisfies the counting principles.

enumeration Determining the number of items in a set by any means including, but not limited to, counting.

individuation To determine the boundaries of a specific individual and maintain a representation of that entity as a distinct unit.

subitization A process of rapidly determining how many items are in a display; applies over small numbers only.

The formal system of mathematics is arguably one of the greatest and most beautiful of human achievements. Mathematics captures and describes many aspects of the physical world, yet it is an abstract logical system that is unconstrained by physical reality. How is it that the human mind is able to grasp an understanding of such abstract knowledge? How are we able to determine the numbers of things in our world? How does the human mind represent number concepts, and how does it operate on these representations to perform basic numerical computations, including arithmetic? These questions form the central focus of this article.

Empirical findings suggest that some understanding of number is part of the inherent structure of the human mind. Evidence from comparative psychology and cognitive neuroscience suggests that we may be born with an evolved mental mechanism for number, which we share with a number, of animal species; specific brain structures are responsible for our sense of magnitude and our ability to engage in basic numerical thought.

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

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