basal ganglia A system of subcortical nuclei that receive cortical input and project to thalamic nuclear groups that project in turn to cortex. The basal ganglia thus contribute to a feedback loop for the control of movement as well as cognitive and often nonmotor functions. The globus pallidus and substantia nigra are the basal ganglia components that control motor cortical areas.

cerebellar nuclei Deep nuclei of the cerebellum that, together with the basal ganglia, control motor cortical areas via their projections to the motor thalamus.

cingulate motor cortex Motor cortical areas located in the cingulate sulcus and cingulate gyrus on the medial wall of the frontal lobe of primates.

motor cortex Cortex involved in control of movement. Often, it refers to only the primary motor field, M1, but premotor and other motor areas of frontal cortex may be included as well.

motor thalamus The part of the ventral thalamus that projects to motor cortex.

premotor cortex Nonprimary motor cortex on the dorsolateral brain surface, anterior to M1. Investigators currently describe this cortical region as having dorsal and ventral subdivisions.

supplementary motor area A motor area first described in the cortex of the medial wall of the frontal lobe of humans. It is sometimes called the second motor area, M2.

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