Certain associated disorders are generally present in the majority of individuals with aphasia. These include deficits in writing, reading, and calculation. Patients with Broca's aphasia, for example, tend to have difficulty with prepositions, articles, and conjunctions not only in speaking but also when writing or reading, that may range from mild to severe. This include difficulty reading aloud, reading certain parts of speech, greater ease reading longer than shorter words, confusion over word meanings (i.e., reading the word "wife" for "sister"), difficulty copying letters, and writing small words or words with a low frequency of occurrence. Letter deletions, substitutions, and additions may also be present. Those with calculation disorders in addition to aphasia may show deficits in all four basic arithmetic operations.
A common physical consequence of damage to the brain is visual deficits involving the peripheral field of vision. The peripheral fields of vision refer to what we see out of the "corners" of our eyes when looking straight ahead. In the case of someone with a left hemisphere cerebral lesion, the individual may have absent vision in the right peripheral field of both eyes and this can further complicate the reading process for someone with aphasia.
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