Temporal Sequencing

Frontal lobe patients have also demonstrated deficiencies in their ability to integrate temporally separated events. Temporal sequencing can be tested by assessing an individual's ability to recall or recognize the temporal order of recently presented lists of words, abstract designs, or pictures. Patients with prefrontal cortex damage have been shown to demonstrate impairment in recalling the temporal order of such items but have no item recognition problems for the same list of words, designs, or pictures. In 1994,

Raymond Kesner, Ramona Hopkins, and Bonnie Fineman conducted a study in which a group of prefrontal cortex-damaged patients were tested for item and order recognition memory for spatial location, word, abstract picture, and hand position information. Compared to controls, frontal patients showed severe deficits on all order recognition tests. However, relative to controls, the frontal patients showed no deficits in their ability to recognize these same items with the exception of a deficit for hand position. With regard to laterality, order recognition memory deficits for spatial location occurred for right and bilateral but not left prefrontal cortex-damaged patients. Both right and left prefrontal cortex subjects showed order recognition memory deficits for words, abstract pictures, and hand position.

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