There are five types of dopamine receptors, all of which are metabotropic. Dopaminergic neurons are abundant in the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area; dopamine cells project to the basal ganglia, hypothalamus, and the limbic system to regulate voluntary movement, thinking, and planning. Dopamine plays an important role in the reward system and in addiction.

b. Norepinephrine NE is produced by the introduction of a hydroxyl group into the carbon chain of dopamine by dopamine b-hydroxylase.

Norepinephrine -

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Understanding And Treating Autism

Understanding And Treating Autism

Whenever a doctor informs the parents that their child is suffering with Autism, the first & foremost question that is thrown over him is - How did it happen? How did my child get this disease? Well, there is no definite answer to what are the exact causes of Autism.

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