History

In 1871, Heymann Steinthal first used the term "apraxia" for a loss of motor skills. Steinthal thought that apraxia was a defect in "the relationship between movements and the objects with which the movements were concerned.'' Despite this 19th-century description of apraxia, not many important advances were made until the beginning of the 20th century with the work of Hugo Liepmann, who described three forms of apraxia: limb kinetic, ideomotor, and ideational. After World War I there was a loss of interest in continental European neurology and little interest in apraxia. However, after seeing a patient with a callosal disconnection, Norman Geschwind, in his classic paper "Disconnection Syndromes,'' renewed interest in apraxia. In this brief review, we describe the three form of apraxia described by Liepmann as well as three other forms of apraxia he did not discuss.

Encyclopedia of the Human Brain Volume 1

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