In 1871, Heymann Steinthal first used the term "apraxia" for a loss of motor skills. Steinthal thought that apraxia was a defect in "the relationship between movements and the objects with which the movements were concerned.'' Despite this 19th-century description of apraxia, not many important advances were made until the beginning of the 20th century with the work of Hugo Liepmann, who described three forms of apraxia: limb kinetic, ideomotor, and ideational. After World War I there was a loss of interest in continental European neurology and little interest in apraxia. However, after seeing a patient with a callosal disconnection, Norman Geschwind, in his classic paper "Disconnection Syndromes,'' renewed interest in apraxia. In this brief review, we describe the three form of apraxia described by Liepmann as well as three other forms of apraxia he did not discuss.

Encyclopedia of the Human Brain Volume 1

Adult Dyslexia

Adult Dyslexia

This is a comprehensive guide covering the basics of dyslexia to a wide range of diagnostic procedures and tips to help you manage with your symptoms. These tips and tricks have been used on people with dyslexia of every varying degree and with great success. People just like yourself that suffer with adult dyslexia now feel more comfortable and relaxed in social and work situations.

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