Islet Anatomy

The pancreatic islets are scattered throughout the entire pancreas, and each islet mainly consists of four different endocrine cells synthesizing and secreting the four islet hormones: insulin (b cells), glucagon (a cells), somatostatin (d cells), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP, F cells) (See Table I for a list of abbreviations used throughout the text.) Microanatomical studies have shown that the b cells usually form the central portion of the islet structure, whereas the other cells form a mantle zone surrounding the b cells. The afferent vessels to the islets first reach the centrally located b cells. Blood vessels then pass through the central portion of the islets to reach the mantle zone, from which they leave the islets in efferent vessels. In addition, the islets are densely innervated, and parasympathetic, sympathetic, sensory, and other

Encyclopedia of the Human Brain Volume 3

Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA).

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Table I

Abbreviation List

Table I

Abbreviation List

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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