The Electrophysiological Approach Versus Other Approaches Of Studying Brain Functions

In the past decade, the emergence of brain imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), has made important contributions to our understanding of basic brain processes underlying neurocognitive functions. Notwithstanding the fact that, in particular, fMRI can provide maps of brain activity with millimeter spatial resolution, its temporal resolution is limited. Indeed, this resolution is on the order of seconds, whereas neurocognitive phenomena may take place within tens of milliseconds. Therefore, it is important to use electrophysiological techniques to achieve the desired temporal resolution in this kind of investigation, although this is done at the cost of spatial resolution. The essential problem of electro/magnetoencephalo-graphy is that the sources of neuronal activity cannot be derived in a unique way from the distribution of EEG or MEG activity at the scalp; thus, the inverse problem is an ill-posed problem. However, new possibilities are emerging to solve this problem. A promising solution is to solve the inverse problem by imposing spatial constraints based on anatomical information provided by MRI and additional physiological information from metabolic or hemodynamic signals, derived from fMRI, that are associated with the neuronal activity. The precise nature of this association, however, is not trivial and it is a matter of current investigation. This implies that we may expect that in the near future technical advances in combining fMRI and EEG/MEG measures of brain activity will contribute to a better understanding of neurocognitive and other brain functions.

Understanding And Treating Autism

Understanding And Treating Autism

Whenever a doctor informs the parents that their child is suffering with Autism, the first & foremost question that is thrown over him is - How did it happen? How did my child get this disease? Well, there is no definite answer to what are the exact causes of Autism.

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