Kitze et al. (1996). J. Neurol. 243, 660

"Abbreviations used: ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; IFA, immunofluorescence assay; WB, Western immunoblot; IP, immunoprecipitation; CFS, chronic fatigue syndrome; MS, multiple sclerosis; N, nucleoprotein; P, phosphoprotein.

and confirmed isolates cannot be used to exclude the former as artifacts.

A blinded international multicenter study composed of more than 2000 subjects recruited at sites in North America, Europe, and Asia using standardized diagnostic clinical instruments is under way to determine the prevalence of BDV infection in individuals with affective disorders or schizophrenia. Results of serol-ogy (antibodies to BDV N, P, and M proteins) and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses (BDV

genetic sequences in white blood cells) are anticipated in late 2002.

No specific vaccine or antiviral therapy is established for BDV. Although there is one report in which BDV was found to be sensitive to amantadine in vitro and in vivo, three other reports found no antiviral activity in vitro or in vivo. The nucleoside analog ribavirin inhibits viral replication in vitro. Whether it has an impact on viral replication in vivo or on severity of disease is unknown.

Table III

BDV RNA, Virus or Protein in Subjects with Various Diseases0

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