Anatomy Of Noradrenergic Neurons

Taking advantage of the fluorescent properties of amines after condensation with aldehydes, histochem istry was developed by Eranko in 1955 and applied to brain structure by Falck and Hillarp in 1962. Thanks to this technique, noradrenergic pathways are probably the best characterized in the peripheral and central nervous systems. The noradrenergic cells in the central nervous system are localized in the most posterior part of the brain in two sets of neurons (Fig. 1). First, the locus ceruleus (LC, cell group A6) and adjacent nuclei (A5 and A7) are in the upper pons. Second, the medullary nuclei (cell groups Al and A2) innervate forebrain areas as the hypothalamus, amygdala, septum, and piriform cortex via the ventral NE bundle and play a role in the control of vegetative functions and endocrine regulations. Because this article's main subject is the brain, we will focus on the LC, the major source of central noradrenergic innervation, with the medullary nuclei functions being mainly peripheral. The anatomical, as well as physiological, characteristics of the LC cells have been studied most in the rat, cat, and primate. The most obvious species difference is that LC neurons are essentially noradrenergic in rats and primates and that, in contrast, NE-containing neurons are interspersed with non-noradrenergic neurons in the LC of other species including cat.

Breaking Bulimia

Breaking Bulimia

We have all been there: turning to the refrigerator if feeling lonely or bored or indulging in seconds or thirds if strained. But if you suffer from bulimia, the from time to time urge to overeat is more like an obsession.

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