Deductive Reasoning

Logic tells us about implications among sentences, but it is not a theory of human reasoning. This topic is a concern of psychology. In the last 25 years of the 20th century, psychologists proposed a variety of theories of reasoning—that it depends on a memory for previous cases, on rules that capture general knowledge, on ''neural nets'' representing concepts, or on specialized innate modules for matters that were important to our hunter-gatherer ancestors. However, humans have the ability to reason about matters for which they have no specific knowledge. Even if you know nothing about brakes, switches, and engines, you can grasp the validity of the earlier inference about them. This ability lies at the heart of the development of mathematics and logic. Hence, a critical question is whether it depends on syntactic or semantic principles. The following sections describe psychological theories of both sorts.

Breaking Bulimia

Breaking Bulimia

We have all been there: turning to the refrigerator if feeling lonely or bored or indulging in seconds or thirds if strained. But if you suffer from bulimia, the from time to time urge to overeat is more like an obsession.

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