Dopamine Receptors A Subtypes

Initial biochemical and pharmacological studies indicated the presence of two dopamine receptor subtypes with differential coupling to G proteins: D1 receptors stimulate adenylate cyclase through Gs protein, and D2 receptors inhibit adenylate cyclase through Gi protein. The recent application of molecular cloning techniques has revealed the existence of five dopamine receptor genes, each encoding a distinct seven-transmembrane spanning receptor. These receptors have been classified according to their structures and divided into two subfamilies, the D2-like receptors (D2-D4) and the D1-like receptors (D1 and D5). In the case of the D2 receptor, two isoforms (D2L and D2S), generated by alternative splicing of the primary transcript, have been identified. Given their structural similarity, members of each subfamily exhibit similar pharmacological characteristics.

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