Not surprisingly, the neural structures that are important for emotional behavior in nonhuman animals are also important for emotional behavior in humans (Fig. 3). Again, these can be divided into (i) structures important for homeostatic regulation and emotional reaction, such as the hypothalamus and PAG, and (ii) structures for linking perceptual representation to regulation and reaction, such as the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. We will discuss the role of frontal and parietal regions in representing the organism's own changes in body state, focusing on right frontoparietal cortex as well as other somatosensory structures such as the insula. It is again important to remember, however, that all these structures are heavily interconnected, and that most play at least some role in multiple components of emotion. Next we discuss those structures for which the most data are available from humans: the amygdala, the orbitofron-tal cortex, and right somatosensory-related cortices.

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