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shoe — "show"

nate, or an associate of the target. Examples of semantic paralexias are provided in Table I. By definition, all alexic patients who produce semantic paralexias as more than 5% of their total reading errors are classified as having "deep alexia,'' which will be discussed later.

Inflectional and derivational paralexias are reading errors in which the root morpheme is retained but the incorrect form of the word is produced. Inflectional paralexias refer to errors in which the correct part of speech is retained (e.g., happiest — "happier" and buy — "bought"). Derivational paralexias refer to errors in which the part of speech has been changed (e.g., applaud — "applause"). Inflectional and derivational errors are always seen in patients with deep alexia. They are often produced by patients with phonologic alexia as well. They are not characteristic of pure alexia, surface alexia, or attentional alexia. Prefix errors may occur in left neglect alexia, and suffix errors may occur in right neglect alexia.

Function word substitutions are errors in which a function word such as a preposition, conjunction, pronoun, or auxiliary verb is incorrectly read as another, seemingly unrelated, function word. Many of these paralexias are easily classified as function word substitutions; there is simply no other way in which the response word and the target word are connected (e.g., her — "which"). On other occasions, function word substitutions may be related orthogra-phically (e.g., her — "here") or semantically (e.g., her — "she"). Although these latter paralexias may indeed represent instances of orthographic or semantic paralexias, they are typically all categorized as function word substitutions. Function word substitutions are produced by all patients with deep alexia, and by some patients with phonologic alexia.

Regularization errors are paralexias that are produced when an alexic patient reads a word as it would be pronounced if it were being read via some sort of spelling-to-sound correspondence rules (e.g., the word come is read as "comb"). These errors are not always easy to classify because the "rules" that were employed are not always transparent. Regularization errors may occur, sometimes with great frequency, in patients with surface alexia.

Orthographic-then-semantic paralexias are the result of two processing errors. The target word is first altered orthographically, then the altered word is misread semantically. These paralexias may at first appear to be random, unrelated responses until the mediating word is deduced (e.g., pivot — [pilot] — "airplane").

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