Stroop Color-Word Interference Test

Composed of three parts that require (1) reading a series of black and white color words (red, blue, green), (2) identifying the color of red, blue, and green ''Xs,'' and (3) identifying the ink color of incongruent color words (i.e., the correct response to the word ''red'' printed in blue ink would be ''blue''). In all conditions the patient is asked to perform as quickly as possible.

Response inhibition

Motor Go-No-Go

Involves responding to a target signal (one loud knock) by lifting a finger, but not to a second signal (two loud knocks). The tendency to respond to the second signal must be inhibited. The examiner produces a series of one or two knocks and observes the patient's responses. Each hand is tested separately.


Tower ofLondon

Involves ordering three or four colored beads within a set of constraints. Only one bead may be moved at a time, and beads moved from their initial placement may not be returned. Similar tests include Tower of Hanoi and Tower of Toronto.


Verbal and Design Fluency

Letters: the examinee must recite as many words as possible that start with a particular letter, with the exception of proper nouns, numbers, and more than one iteration of the same root word. This is repeated with three different letters in total. Categories: the examinee must recite as many words as possible from a particular category. This is repeated with three different categories in total. Design: the examinee must create as many unique designs as possible by connecting lines between dots laid out in a grid.

manipulation of information (see Tests of Mental Control, WAIS-IIILetter-Number Sequencing, WAISIII Arithmetic, PASAT). Memory is assessed with respect to modality of presentation (auditory vs visual), material (linguistic vs figural), and locus of reference (personal vs nonpersonal). Also important is the time of initial exposure, namely, whether information was learned before the onset of brain damage (retrograde memory, see Boston Retrograde Memory Test, Transient Events Test) or after (anterograde memory, see WMS-III, RAVLT, Bushke SRT, Three Words-Three Shapes, Warrington RMT). The evaluation of memory should include measures that allow the dissociation of the component processes entailed in the acquisition and later recall of information, namely, encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. To this end, measures are used to assess performance with respect to length of the interval between exposure to information and demand for recall (immediate vs short vs long delay) and extent of facilitation required to demonstrate retention (free recall vs cued recall vs recognition). The assessment of retrograde memory function poses a special problem insofar as it is difficult to know with certainty what information was previously registered in the remote memory of a particular patient. Although there are a number of formal tests that can be used for this purpose (e.g., Boston Remote Memory Battery, Transient Events Test), we also assess this aspect of memory function by asking for personal information that presumably is or had been well-known at one time by the patient (i.e., names of family members, places of prior employment). In these instances it is helpful to obtain confirmation of the accuracy of this information from family members or friends, if possible. (See Table III).

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