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"The middle column shows the mental models postulated for human reasoners, and the right-hand column shows fully explicit models, which represent the false components in true possibilities using negations that are true: denotes negation and "..." denotes a wholly implicit model. The footnote on the mental models for "if" indicates that the implicit model represents the possibilities in which A is false, and the footnote on the mental models for ''if and only if" indicates that the implicit model represents the possibilities in which both A and B are false.

"The middle column shows the mental models postulated for human reasoners, and the right-hand column shows fully explicit models, which represent the false components in true possibilities using negations that are true: denotes negation and "..." denotes a wholly implicit model. The footnote on the mental models for "if" indicates that the implicit model represents the possibilities in which A is false, and the footnote on the mental models for ''if and only if" indicates that the implicit model represents the possibilities in which both A and B are false.

Reasoners use all the information available to them to construct models—discourse, perception, general knowledge, memory, and imagination. They formulate a conclusion that holds in their models but that was not explicit in the starting information. If a conclusion holds in all the models of the premises, then it is necessary given the premises. If it holds in at least one model of the premises, then it is possible given the premises. The probability of a conclusion depends on the proportion of models in which it holds, granted that each model is equiprobable, which is an assumption that reasoners make in default of evidence to the contrary. The theory accordingly unifies reasoning about necessity, possibility, and probability. They all depend on a semantic process rather than a formal one. They all depend on a grasp of meaning, which is used to imagine the possibilities compatible with the premises.

To illustrate the theory, consider the following inference:

The switches are on or the brakes are on, or both.

The switches are not on.

The disjunctive premise elicits the models:

switches brakes switches brakes

The second premise eliminates the models representing the possibilities in which the switches are on. The remaining model yields the conclusion that the brakes are on. This conclusion is valid because it holds in all the models—in this case, the single model—of the premises.

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Understanding And Treating Autism

Whenever a doctor informs the parents that their child is suffering with Autism, the first & foremost question that is thrown over him is - How did it happen? How did my child get this disease? Well, there is no definite answer to what are the exact causes of Autism.

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