Conclusion

Studies carried out by behavioral neuroscientists using rats and rabbits have shown that the cingulate cortex is a critical substrate of instrumental learning of goal-directed behavior. Cingulate cortical neurons in these animals code associatively significant stimuli and exhibit context-specific topographic patterns that could mediate cued retrieval of context-appropriate learned behavior. These functions occur as a result of intimate interactions of hippocampal and cingulotha-lamic brain regions. Studies of cognitive neuroscien-tists concerning brain activation during cognitive task performance in human subjects have recently yielded many important findings, promising for the first time major advances in understanding complex cognitive processes of the human brain. These studies have yielded results that are fundamentally in agreement with the results of the studies on rats and rabbits. However, cognitive neuroscientists have discussed cingulate cortex as involved in attentional processes, with particular reference to response selection. They have not explicitly included cingulate cortex as an important component of the brain's memory system. However, given the findings of behavioral neuroscience and the very close neuroanatomical association of cingulate cortex with other structures (e.g., the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex) that are acknowledged by a consensus of neuroscientists as components of the memory system, it is very likely that there will soon occur an even greater convergence of behavioral and cognitive neuroscience on a common mnemonic interpretation of cingulate cortical function.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grant NS26736 to MG.

See Also the Following Articles

ATTENTION • BRAIN ANATOMY AND NETWORKS • BRAIN LESIONS • CEREBRAL CORTEX • CHEMICAL NEUROANATOMY • GABA • MOTOR CORTEX • NEOCORTEX • WORKING MEMORY

Suggested Reading

Bowers, D., Verfaellie, M., Valenstein, E., and Heilman, K. M. (1988). Impaired acquisition of temporal information in retro-splenial amnesia. Brain Cogn. 8, 47-66. Bussey, T. J., Muir, J. L., Everitt, B. J., and Robbins, T. W. (1997). Triple dissociation of anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, and medial frontal cortices on visual discrimination tasks using a touchscreen testing procedure for the rat. Behav. Neurosci. 111, 920-936.

Dahaene, S., Posner, M. I., and Tucker, D. M. (1994). Localization of a neural system for error detection and compensation. Psychol. Sci. 5, 303-305.

Gabriel, M. (1993). Discriminative avoidance learning: A model system. In Neurobiology of Cingulate Cortex and Limbic Thalamus (B. A. Vogt, and M. Gabriel, Eds.), pp. 478-523. Birkhauser, Toronto.

Gabriel, M. (1999). A tale of two paradigms: Lessons learned from parallel studies of classical eyeblink conditioning and discriminative avoidance learning. In Engrams: Model Systems of Vertebrate Learning: Feschrift Volume in Honor of Professor Richard F. Thompson (A. Steinmetz, and M. Gluck, Eds.). Erlbaum, New York.

Gehring, W. J., Goss, B., Coles, M. G. H., Meyer, D. E., and Donchin, E. (1993). A neural system for error detection and compensation. Psychological Science 4, 385-390.

Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1988). Topography of cognition: Parallel distributed networks in primate association cortex. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 11, 137-156.

Harvey, J. A., and Kosofsky, B. E. (1998). Cocaine: Effects on the developing brain. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 846, 208.

Holroyd, C. B., Dien, J., and Coles, M. G. (1998). Error-related scalp potentials elicited by hand and foot movements: Evidence for an output-independent error-processing system in humans. Neurosci. Lett. 242, 65-68.

Milham, M. P., Banich, M. T., Webb, A., Barad, V., Cohen, N. J., Wszalek, T., and Kramer, A. F. (2001). The relative involvement of anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex in attentional control depends on nature of conflict. Cog. Brain Res. 12(3), 467-473.

Nadel, L., and Eichenbaum, H. (1999). Introduction to the special issue on place cells. Hippocampus 9, 341-345.

Papez, J. W. (1937). A proposed mechanism of emotion. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry 38, 725-743.

Paus, T., Petrides, M., Evans, A. C., and Meyer, E. (1993). Role of the human anterior cingulate cortex in the control of oculomotor, manual, and speech responses. J. Neurophysiol. 70, 453-469.

Parkinson, J. A., Willoughby, P. J., Robbins, T. W., andEveritt, B. J. (2000). Disconnection of the anterior cingulate cortex and nucleus accumbens core impairs Pavlovian approach behavior: Further evidence for limbic cortical-ventral striatopallidal systems. Behav. Neurosci. 114, 42-63.

Picard, N., and Strick, P. L. (1996). Motor areas of the medial wall: A review of their location and functional activation. Cereb. Cortex 6, 342-353.

Posner, M. I., and DiGirolamo, G. J. (1998). Executive attention: Conflict, target detection, and cognitive control. In The Attentive Brain (R. Parasuraman, Ed.), pp. 401-423. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Posner, M. I., and DiGirolamo, G. J. (2000). Attention in cognitive neuroscience: An overview. In The New Cognitive Neurosciences (M. S. Gazzaniga Ed.), pp. 623-724. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Powell, D. A., Buchanan, S. L., and Gibbs, C. M. (1990). Role of the prefrontal-thalamic axis in classical conditioning. In The Prefrontal Cortex: Its Structure, Function and Pathology, Vol. 85, (H. B. M. Uylings, C. G. Van Eden, J. P. C. De Bruin, M. A. Corner, and M. G. P. Feenstra, Eds.), pp. 433-466. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.

Rainville, P., Duncan, G. H., Price, D. D., Carrier, B., and Bushnell, M. C. (1997). Pain affect encoded in human anterior cingulate but not somatosensory cortex. Science 277, 968-971.

Takenouchi, K., Nishijo, H., Uwano, T., Tamura, R., Takigawa, M., and Ono, T. (1999). Emotional and behavioral correlates of the anterior cingulate cortex during associative learning in rats. Neuroscience 93, 1271-1287.

Taube, J. S. (1998). Head direction cells and the neurophysiological basis for a sense of direction. Prog. Neurobiol. 55, 225-256.

Turken, A. U., and Swick, D. (1999). Response selection in the human anterior cingulate cortex. Nat. Neurosci. 2, 920-924.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

This guide will help millions of people understand this condition so that they can take control of their lives and make informed decisions. The ebook covers information on a vast number of different types of neuropathy. In addition, it will be a useful resource for their families, caregivers, and health care providers.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment