Functional Imaging

Functional imaging technology has freed studies of language in the brain from the lesion deficit framework and has allowed more detailed analyses of the functional organization of language in the brain. Whereas lesion studies may show what areas are necessary for normal language function, position emission tomography (PET) and functional MRI (fMRI) can reveal the complex association of specific areas that are utilized in normal speech and reveal activation of the same areas in other tasks to further specify or broaden their function. Comparison of images obtained from phonological and semantic processing tasks in visual and auditory modalities helps to identify regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) activation patterns that clarify the role of Broca's area in relation to other language areas. Figure 2 shows a three-dimensional representation of the subdivisions of Broca's area apparent from functional imaging and the motor area for the mouth on the left (Fig. 2, top) and right (Fig. 2, bottom). The average positions (Table I) were calculated from a meta-analysis of functional imaging literature (Table II) reporting activation in standardized space, and relative intensities are based on z scores of activation.

Anxiety and Depression 101

Anxiety and Depression 101

Everything you ever wanted to know about. We have been discussing depression and anxiety and how different information that is out on the market only seems to target one particular cure for these two common conditions that seem to walk hand in hand.

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