Learning And Memory

One structure that has been associated with memory formation is the hippocampus. The hippocampus is an area of the allocortex hidden within the temporal lobe, where it resides in the medial portion. The hippocampus is connected to a number of adjacent cortical areas. The areas affiliated with the hippocampus include the perirhinal, entorhinal, and parahippocampal cortex. Hippocampal injury in humans results in deficits in episodic memory. Memories dependent on the hippocampus also include memories for spatial material. There are case reports on patients with hippocampal

Figure 1 Spatial memory testing in rats. Rats are placed in a circular water pool filled with cloudy water. A small platform is placed at a fixed location just under the surface of the water. The pool has no any specific features but the surrounding environment usually contains a number of navigational cues (lamps, windows, doors, etc.). As the rats search for the platform, their swim path (and speed) is monitored by a video camera (indicated by the traces in the figure). After a number of trials normal rats swim directly to the platform. Rats with impaired spatial memory due to a lesion on the hippocampus fail to learn where to find the hidden platform.

Figure 1 Spatial memory testing in rats. Rats are placed in a circular water pool filled with cloudy water. A small platform is placed at a fixed location just under the surface of the water. The pool has no any specific features but the surrounding environment usually contains a number of navigational cues (lamps, windows, doors, etc.). As the rats search for the platform, their swim path (and speed) is monitored by a video camera (indicated by the traces in the figure). After a number of trials normal rats swim directly to the platform. Rats with impaired spatial memory due to a lesion on the hippocampus fail to learn where to find the hidden platform.

injuries due to temporal lobe surgery, who suffer from an inability to learn how to find their way in unfamiliar neighborhoods (Fig. 1).

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