Motor Functions

Age differences in cognition are inferred from observing a motor (vocal or manual) response to the task stimuli, and age-related changes in the motor system must be taken into account. Although age effects on simple reaction time are mild, aging is accompanied by multiple deficits in planning, control, and execution of movements. Only some of these changes can be attributed to age-related changes in the musculoske-letal system. In vivo PET studies of the dopaminergic system of healthy adults suggest that an age-related decline in availability of dopamine receptors in the caudate nucleus and putamen is linked to impaired fine motor performance. In fMRI measures of activation associated with simple motor tasks, older participants show more sluggish hemodynamic response and lower signal-to-noise ratio than their younger counterparts. Notably, some of the age-related motor deficits may be mediated by differences in aerobic fitness and cardiovascular status. Thus, the results of experimental studies of age differences in cognition should be interpreted in the context of age-related changes in the motor response system.

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

The Ultimate Guide To Overcoming Fear And Getting Breakthroughs. Fear is without doubt among the strongest and most influential emotional responses we have, and it may act as both a protective and destructive force depending upon the situation.

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