Multiple Head Injuries

Repetitive head injuries occur in a wide variety of individuals engaged in contact-collision sports. Due to reports of unfavorable outcomes and epidemiological data suggesting an increased risk for the early onset of neurodegenerative diseases for certain populations of susceptible patients suffering from repetitive head injury, experimental laboratories have begun to develop models that reproduce the effects of repetitive TBI (second impact syndrome). Different techniques described earlier in this article have been used to mimic repetitive head injury, including fluid-percussion injury and closed head injury. The majority of patients suffer from repetitive head injury of mild severity, and, accordingly, the experimental mechanical injury parameters have been designed to produce repetitive mild experimental TBI. However, the interval between the different episodes of TBI and the number of traumatic insults are important variables that have not been thoroughly assessed due to the small number of published studies. Drawing conclusions from these limited results is difficult at present, but it appears that repeated, mild head injury leads to histological damage and behavioral impairments not observed after a single mild TBI. Due to the wide popularity of contact-

collision sports, these results warrant further investigation.

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