See Also the Following Articles

BRAIN DAMAGE, RECOVERY FROM • BRAIN DISEASE, ORGANIC • BRAIN LESIONS • COGNITIVE REHABILITATION • MILD HEAD INJURY • STROKE

Suggested Reading

Beaumont, A., Marmarou, A., Czigner, A., Yamamoto, M., Demetriadou, K., Shirotani, T., Marmarou, C., and Dunbar, J. (1999). The impact-acceleration model of head injury: Injury severity predicts motor and cognitive performance after trauma. Neurol. Res. 21, 742-754. Bramlett, H. M., Green, E. J., and Dietrich, W. D. (1999). Exacerbation of cortical and hippocampal CA1 damage due to posttraumatic hypoxia following moderate fluid-percussion brain injury in rats. J. Neurosurg. 91, 653-659. Carbonell, W. S., Maris, D. O., McCall, T., and Grady, M. S. (1998). Adaptation of the fluid percussion injury model to the mouse. J. Neurotrauma 15, 217-229. Chen, Y., Constantini, S., Trembovler, V., Weinstock, M., and Shohami, E. (1996). An experimental model of closed head injury in mice: Pathophysiology, histopathology, and cognitive deficits. J. Neurotrauma 13, 557-568. Crabbe, J. C., Wahlsten, D., and Dudek, B. C. (1999). Genetics of mouse behavior: Interactions with laboratory environment. Science 284, 1670-1672. Dixon, C. E., Kochanek, P.M., Yan, H. Q., Schiding, J. K., Griffith, R. G., Baum, E., Marion, D. W., and DeKosky, S. T. (1999). One-year study of spatial memory performance, brain morphology and cholinergic markers after moderate controlled cortical impact in rats. J. Neurotrauma 16, 109-122.

Fox, G. B., Levasseur, R. A., and Faden, A. I. (1999). Behavioral responses of C57BL/6, FVB/N, and 129/SvEMS mouse strains to traumatic brain injury: Implications for gene targeting approaches to neurotrauma. J. Neurotrauma 16, 377-389.

Graham, D. I., Raghupathi, R., Saatman, K. E., Meaney, D. F., and McIntosh, T. K. (2000). Tissue tears in the white matter after lateral fluid percussion brain injury in the rat: Relevance to human brain injury. Acta Neuropathol. 99, 117-124.

Lammie, G. A., Piper, I. R., Thomson, D., and Brannan, F. (1999). Neuropathologic characterization of a rodent model of closed head injury—Addition of clinically relevant secondary insults does not significantly potentiate brain damage. J. Neurotrauma 16, 603-615.

Lindner, M. D., Plone, M. A., Cain, C. K., Frydel, B., Francis, J. M., Emerich, D. F., and Sutton, R. L. (1998). Dissociable long-term cognitive deficits after frontal versus sensorimotor cortical contusions. J. Neurotrauma 15, 199-216.

Lowenstein, D. H., Thomas, M. J., Smith, D. H., and McIntosh, T. K. (1992). Selective vulnerability of dentate hilar neurons following traumatic brain injury: A potential mechanistic link between head trauma and disorders of the hippocampus. J. Neurosci. 12, 4846-4853. McIntosh, T. K., Vink, R., Noble, L., Yamakami, I., Fernyak, S., Soares, H., and Faden, A. L. (1989). Traumatic brain injury in the rat: Characterization of a lateral fluid-percussion model. Neuroscience 28, 233-244. Pierce, J. E., Smith, D. H., Trojanowski, J. Q., and McIntosh, T. K. (1998). Enduring cognitive, neurobehavioral and histopatholo-gical changes persist for up to one year following severe experimental brain injury in rats. Neuroscience 87, 359-369. Smith, D. H., Chen, X. H., Nonaka, M., Trojanowski, J. Q., Lee, V. M., Saatman, K. E., Leoni, M. J., Xu, B. N., Wolf, J. A., and Meaney, D. F. (1999). Accumulation of amyloid beta and tau and the formation of neurofilament inclusions following diffuse brain injury in the pig. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 58,982-992. Yang, S. Y., and Cui, J. Z. (1998). Expression of the basic fibroblast growth factor gene in mild and more severe head injury in the rat. J. Neurosurg. 89, 297-302.

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