Sentence Production

Sentence production deficits have also been a focus of research in aphasia, although in this domain much of the work has originated from a syndrome-based approach, concentrating on patients showing agram-matic speech. Agrammatism occurs predominantly in patients with articulatory disturbances who are typically classed as Broca's aphasics. However, several studies have documented that some features of agram-matism may appear in patients who are fluent speakers. Moreover, other studies have shown that the sentence structure and function word difficulties of agrammatic patients may dissociate, with some patients demonstrating reduced sentence complexity but accurate production of function words and inflections and others showing the reverse. In order to accommodate the dissociation between sentence structure and function word difficulties, deficits at different levels in the production process have been postulated. Several different suggestions have been made as to what these different deficits might be. An interesting recent approach relates deficits in sentence structure to deficits in the knowledge of verb representation. The verb plays a major role in structuring the roles of nouns (such as agents, patients, and recipients) with respect to the action in the sentence. The specific verb to be used dictates what grammatical role a noun with a specific thematic role will play (e.g., the recipient will be the subject of an active sentence using the verb "receive" but the indirect object of an active sentence using ''give''). A deficit in knowledge of the relations of semantic and grammatical roles entailed by verbs could lead to a reduction in sentence structure, such as the failure to produce a required indirect object.

The disruption in the production of function words and inflections might be a result of a disruption at a different stage, specifically the stage at which the syntactic structure of the utterance is specified in terms of word order and grammatical markers (i.e., the positional level). Of course, many patients might have a disruption both in representing the relations of the verbs to the nouns and in constructing a syntactic specification, resulting in prototypical agrammatic speech.

Understanding And Treating Autism

Understanding And Treating Autism

Whenever a doctor informs the parents that their child is suffering with Autism, the first & foremost question that is thrown over him is - How did it happen? How did my child get this disease? Well, there is no definite answer to what are the exact causes of Autism.

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