Tricyclic Antidepressants

Introduced in 1959, the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) constituted the first line of treatment for depression until the appearance of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the 1980s. The first TCA to be introduced was imipramine, which was found to have antidepressant actions instead of sedative effects that were expected based on its structure analogous to phenothiazine. Currently, there are nine TCAs (imipramine, amitriptyline, desipra-mine, nortriptyline, clomipramine, trimipramine, dox-epine, protriptyline, and amoxapine) and one tetracyclic (maprotiline) drug marketed in the United States. Central nervous system side effects are mostly due to their antimuscarinic action. Sedation, confusion, or seizures resulting from lowering of seizure threshold occur in about 15% of patients. Peripheral side effects include significant antimuscarinic effects on the cardiovascular system (arrhythmias and tachycardia) as well as blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, and urinary retention.

Natural Depression Cures

Natural Depression Cures

Are You Depressed? Heard the horror stories about anti-depressants and how they can just make things worse? Are you sick of being over medicated, glazed over and too fat from taking too many happy pills? Do you hate the dry mouth, the mania and mood swings and sleep disturbances that can come with taking a prescribed mood elevator?

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