Twin Studies

Although monozygotic (MZ) twins are genetically identical, dizygotic (DZ) twins share only half of the genome. The twin method compares concordance rates for a trait between MZ and DZ twins. A significantly higher rate in MZ compared to DZ twins who share a similar environment suggests that genetic influences are present. Most studies using this method have found two to five times higher concordance rates for BP disorder in MZ compared to DZ twins. A Danish twin study found that when the proband had BP disorder, the concordance in MZ twins was 69% compared to 19% in DZ twins (3.5: 1 ratio), and when the proband had UP disorder the MZ concordance was 54%, whereas the DZ concordance was 24% (2: 1 ratio).

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

The Ultimate Guide To Overcoming Fear And Getting Breakthroughs. Fear is without doubt among the strongest and most influential emotional responses we have, and it may act as both a protective and destructive force depending upon the situation.

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