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Perceptual implicit tests of memory and traditional, explicit tests of memory demonstrate fundamentally different types of memory. The former is preserved in amnesia, sensitive to the overlap in perceptual details between the study and test phases of experiments but relatively insensitive to higher level strategies. Conversely, explicit tests of memory demonstrate profound decrements for amnesic patients. Also, they are relatively insensitive to mismatches in perceptual features between the study and test phases, but are highly sensitive to the types of study strategies invoked during the study phase. Understanding both types of memory and the brain regions contributing to them will provide a more complete understanding of the workings of human memory.

See Also the Following Articles

ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE, NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF • CATEGORIZATION • COGNITIVE AGING • MEMORY NEUROBIOLOGY • MEMORY, NEUROIMAGING • MEMORY, OVERVIEW • NERVE CELLS AND MEMORY • PRIMING • SEMANTIC MEMORY • SHORT-TERM MEMORY • WORKING MEMORY

Suggested Reading

Gardiner, J. M., and Java, R. I. (1993). Recognising and remembering. In Theories of Memory (A. Collins, M. A. Conway and P. E. Morris, Eds.), pp. 163-188. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ. McDermott, K. B. (2000). Implicit memory. In The Encyclopedia of Psychology (A. E. Kazdin, Ed.), pp. 231-234. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.

Richardson-Klavehn, A., and Bjork, R. A. (1988). Measures of memory. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 39, 475-543. Roediger, H. L. (1990). Implicit memory: Retention without remembering. Am. Psychol. 45, 1043-1056. Roediger, H. L., and McDermott, K. B. (1993). Implicit memory in normal human subjects. In Handbook of Neuropsychology (F. Boller and J. Grafman, Eds.), Vol. 8, pp. 63-131. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Roediger, H. L., Buckner, R. L., and McDermott, K. B. (1999). Components of processing. In Memory: Systems, Process, or Function? (J. K. Foster and M. Jelicic, Eds.), pp. 31-65. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford. Schacter, D. L. (1987). Implicit memory: History and current status.

J. Exp. Psychol. Learning Memory Cognition 13, 501-518. Schacter, D. L., and Buckner, R. L. (1998). Priming and the brain.

Neuron 20, 185-195. Tulving, E.,and Schacter, D. L. (1990). Priming and human memory systems. Science 247, 301-306.

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