Neuroglial cells were described initially as specialized cells surrounding the neurons to provide structural support and insulation. In fact, neuroglial cells comprise a wide variety of phenotypes and functions. It is now known that complex intercellular communication exists not only between glial cells and neurons but also among the neuroglial members. This relationship becomes evident during pathological conditions of the brain. Selective damage of any one cell type can have severe ramifications on the functions of others as well as on the neuronal population. In the normal human brain, glial cells and neurons exist in a very delicate and highly coordinated balance. The diversity of neuroglial cells serves to contribute to the complexity of the human CNS.

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