Disorders Of Color Processing A Genetic Defects

The major abnormalities of color vision are due to genetic defects (Table I). The most common involve red-green color vision and are due to defects in the genes for L and M cone opsins located on the X chromosome. Therefore, they occur mainly in males. In the most severe cases, both genes fail to function. This leads to achromatopsia, loss of all color vision. Such subjects have only S cones and rods and are called S cone achromats. With only one class of cones, color vision is impossible. Such subjects may experience a primitive form of color vision that depends on a comparison between S cones and rods. Without L and M cones, they also lack high spatial resolution and are

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