Conclusions

There can be little doubt that our understanding of hypothalamic organization and function has improved dramatically during the past 25 years. Many of these advances can be traced directly to technical advances that have allowed the dissection of hypothalamic circuits from both organizational and functional perspectives. Thus, the ability to define the connectivity and phenotype of hypothalamic neurons and to assess the activity of anatomically defined circuits with functional probes such as Fos has proven to be enormously informative in defining the function of hypothalamic cell groups. Continued application of these experimental approaches promises to further illuminate our understanding of this small subdivision of the diencephalon that has long been recognized as a central integrative center for the control of home-ostasis and behavioral state.

See Also the Following Articles

AROUSAL • CHEMICAL NEUROANATOMY • CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS • HOMEOSTATIC MECHANISMS • NERVOUS SYSTEM, ORGANIZATION OF • PSYCHONEUROENDO-CRINOLOGY • SLEEP DISORDERS • TIME PASSAGE, NEURAL SUBSTRATES

Suggested Reading

Card, J. P., Swanson, L. W., and Moore, R. Y. (1999). The hypothalamus: An overview of regulatory systems. In Fundamental Neuroscience (M. Zigmond, F. E. Bloom, S. C. Landis, J.

L. Roberts, and L. R. Squire, Eds.), pp. 1013-1026. Academic Press, San Diego.

Iversen, S., Iversen, L., and Saper, C. B. (2000). The autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamus. In Principles of Neural Science (E. R. Kandel, J. H. Schwartz, and T. M. Jessel, Eds.), 4th ed., pp. 960-981. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Parent, A. (1997). Hypothalamus. In Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy 9th ed., pp. 706-743. Willams & Wilkins, Baltimore.

Saper, C. B. (1990). Hypothalamus. In The Human Nervous System (G. Paxinos, Ed.), pp. 389-414. Academic Press, San Diego.

Sawchenko, P. E. (1998). Toward a new neurobiology of energy balance, appetite, and obesity. The anatomists weigh in. J. Comp. Neurol. 402, 435-441.

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